Qatar ,officially the State of Qatar is a sovereign Arab state, located in Western Asia, occupying the small Qatar Peninsula of the much larger Arabian Peninsula. Its sole land border is with Saudi Arabia to the south, with the rest of its territory surrounded by the Persian Gulf. A strait in the Persian Gulf separates Qatar from the nearby island state of Bahrain.
Qatar is an absolute monarchy that has been ruled by the Al Thani family since the mid-19th century. Before the discovery of oil, Qatar was noted mainly for pearl hunting and sea trade. It was a British protectorate until it gained independence in 1971.
In 1995, Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani became Emir when he deposed his father, Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani, On 25 June 2013, Sheikh Tamim bin Hamad Al Thani became the Emir of Qatar after his father handed over power in a TV speech. Qatar has the world's third largest natural gas reserves which has fueled Qatar to become world's richest country per capita and achieve the highest human development in the Arab World and 36th highest globally, furthermore it is recognized as a high income economy by the World Bank and also the 19th most peaceful country in the world.
Qatar is currently undergoing transformation under the National Vision 2030, in which it expects to achieve advanced, sustainable and diversified economy.In order to promote tourism, Qatar has invested billions into improving infrastructure, it held the 2006 Asian Games and is the host of 2022 FIFA World Cup, becoming the first Arab country to host either of the events.
Alcohol consumption is legal in Qatar. Luxury hotels are allowed to sell alcohol to their adult customers. Foreign nationals may obtain a permit to purchase alcohol for personal consumption. The Qatar Distribution Company (a subsidiary of Qatar Airways) is permitted to import alcohol and pork; it operates the one and only liquor store in the country, which also sells pork to holders of liquor licences. Qatari officials have also indicated a willingness to allow alcohol in "fan zones" at the 2022 FIFA World Cup.Qatar was also an early member of OPEC and a founding member of the Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC). It is a member of the Arab League.
Qatar has hosted academic, religious, political, and economic conferences. The 11th annual Doha Forum recently brought in key thinkers, professionals of various backgrounds, and political figures from all over the world to discuss democracy, media and information technology, free trade, and water security issues.
In more recent times, Qatar has been active in initiating peaceful talks between rival factions across the globe. Notable among these include the Darfur Agreement.
Since 2004, Qatar has been divided into seven municipalities : Madinat ash Shamal, Al Khor, Umm Salal, Al Daayen, Al Rayyan, Doha, Al Wakrah. GeographyThe Qatari peninsula juts 100 miles (161 km) north into the Persian Gulf from Saudi Arabia.Much of the country consists of a low, barren plain, covered with sand. To the southeast lies the Khor al Adaid(“Inland Sea”), an area of rolling sand dunes surrounding an inlet of the Persian Gulf. There are mild winters and very hot, humid summers.
Before the discovery of oil, the economy of the Qatari region focused on fishing and pearl hunting. After the introduction of the Japanese cultured pearl onto the world market in the 1920s and 1930s, Qatar's pearling industry crashed. Oil was discovered in Qatar in 1940, in Dukhan Field.The discovery transformed the state's economy. Qatar has the highest GDP per capita in the world as of 2012, and approximately 14% of households are dollar millionaires. It relies heavily on foreign labor to grow its economy, to the extent that migrant workers comprise 94% of the workforce.
The economic growth of Qatar has been almost exclusively based on its petroleum and natural gas industries, which began in 1940. Skyline of Doha at night Religion Sunni Islam is the predominant religion. According to the 2004 census, 71.5% of the population are Sunni Muslim and about 10% Shi'a Muslim, 8.5% are Christian and 10% are "Other".The Christian population is composed almost entirely of foreigners.
Arabic is the official language of Qatar. English is also widely spoken.
Qatar's native culture is similar to that of other Arab States of the Persian Gulf. The Qatar National Day hosted every 18 December is the day Qataris celebrate their national identity and history.